Greek - Scythian period
VII c. BC - I c. AD
Money circulation in the Southern territory of modern Ukraine
was born in epoch of Greek's movement here from Asia Minor and
development of trade relationship between them and other Greek
world, and also between aborigen Scythian tribes.
The end of the VII - VI century BC. The first equivalent
of money in the Northern Black Sea Coast were tips arrows
with blunt and round ends other configurations what excluded them
from the using as a weapon. They were issued in Scythian country
and also in Greek's settlements in Berezan island and in Olbia.
In VI BC the cast coins in the shape of "dolphins"
appeared in Olbia. At the end of this century Panticapeum
started issue silver coins.
V century BC. Olbia put into circulation bronze cast coins
of round shape with Athena and Gorgona images and later Demetra
and also their fracses. In Kerkinitida
the first coins were also cast coins "arrows" and "fishes".
Nikoniy issued series of
cast coins with the town protector's name - Scythian king Skil.
Also cast imitations of the money of the town of Istriya were
issued by him. Panticapeum continued to mint the coins, the Temple
of Apollon began minting the coins.
The end of the V-IV century BC almost all of the Greek
towns in the Northern Black Sea Coast were crossed to mint their
own silver and copper coins. Sindy,
Chersonessos, Tyra, Phanagoria.
The golden coins were minted also in Olbia and Panticapeum. As
we know, the Scythian coins were good imitations of the silver
drahmes by the Macedonian king Philip II. The coins of the Western
and Southern Pontos and other Greek town - policies were included
into money circulation of the Northern Black Sea Coast staters.
III century BC. The town - policies Olbia, Tyra,
Panticapeum were continued to produce the coins. The mint was
finished in Theodosia and Kerkinitida. Theodosia was placed under
the control of the Bospor's state and Kerkinitida was placed under
the control of Chersonessos policy. The Celtic
tribes in Pridnestrovye Region and in the land near Danube
minted their own golden and silver states.
II century BC. Money circulation in the Northern Black
Sea Coast didn't change. The coin yards of Pantikapeum, Olbia,
Tyra, Chersonessos continued issues. Olbia was placed under the
control of Scythian kings Skilur and Akrossa.
I century BC. All main town-policies of the Northern Black
Sea Coast were placed under state of the king of Pontos Mithradates
VI the Great. These conquest coused coins supply from the Pontos
towns Sinope, Amisos, Amastris and others into the Northern Black
Sea Coast and thair partly remint on the coin-yards. In the middle
of the I century BC Olbia and Tyra were under the Gets invasion
and in that time they stoped to mint the coin.
Roman - Sarmatian period
I-V centuries AD.
I c. AD. Money circulation functioned actively all over
the Black Sea Coast territory of modern Ukraine. Bosporos
Kingdom got under authority of Roman Empire and from the
beginning of the I century AD minted gold and brass coins with
the images of Roman Emperors and Bosporos kings. The town of Tyra
became a Roman provincial town and also minted the coins with
the images of Roman Emperors. In money circulation of the Northern
Black Sea Region the coins of Roman Empire circulated actively.
After Gets mayhem the minting of brass coins in Olbia revived,
where gold and brass coins were minted with the names of Sarmatian
kings Farzoy and Ininthimens.
II c. AD. Minting in the towns of Olbia and Chersonessos
continued. Bosporos Kingdom and Tyra continued minting being under
Roman protection. In money circulation Roman dinarius circulated
III c. AD. In the first quarter of this century Olbia
and Chersonessos got under Roman Empire's control and began minting
coins with the images of Roman Emperors. However from the middle
of the century the minting was stopped probably because of being
caught by barbaric tribes. Scythian-Sarmatian
tribes minted imitations to Roman dinarius in silver and brass.
Thracean imitations to Roman brass coins also circulated.
IV - V c. in the first half of IV century minting was stopped
in Bosporos State. Coin yards of Olbia, Tyra and Panticapeum were
in decline. The total crisis of antic system for the Northern
Black Sea Region was aggravated by devastating raid of Huns in
the eighties of IV century. Only Chersonessos
continued minting having got under control of Eastern Roman Empire,
and issued the coins with the images of Roman Emperors Theodosius
II, Leo I, Zeno and the others.
VI-VII c. Among the towns of the Northern Black Sea Coast
implemented coin minting. The coins were being minted on behalf
of Emperors Justin II, Maurice, Heraclius. In money circulation
the coins of Byzantine Empire circulated actively. All over the
rest of modern Ukraine territory money circulation was frozen.
Perhaps, it happened due to some war activities or intertribal
VII-IX c. In the south of modern Ukraine still dominated
Byzantine coins and cast coins of Chersonessos (Slavic name is
Korsun) issued on behalf of Emperors Michael III, Basilius I,
Leo IV and Alexander. At the end of VIII c. Sasanidian drachmas
dirhams of different eastern countries - Omeyad, Abbasids,
Samanid and the other-started circulation.
X c. All over Kievan Rus territory eastern coins and their
immitatons dominated and also "rezans" - offcutts of
Kufic dirhams. In the South of Ukraine coins and cast coins of
Chersoneses with the initials of Emperors Constantine VII, Roman
II, Johannes I and the others. Due to penetrating of Christianity
and development of trade in Kievan Rus at the end of X c. the
Great prince Vladimir started minting the first ancient Russian
coins from silver and gold - "srebrenik" and "zlatnik".
In Kuban Region Tmutarakhan
Princedom arose, which was under Kievan Rus control. From
the second half of X c. this princedom started issue of brass
and silver imitations to Byzantine milliarense.
X - XIII c.c.
X - XI century in the Kievan Rus continue issue gold and
silver coins of Grand prince Vladimir, Svaytopolk, Jaroslav the
Wise and so on. Fast stopping the minting of ancient Russian silver
coins maybe link with that they on the whole had low standard
of silver and market taked them badly, at which was get into the
habit to loudstandarding of Kufic derhams. Also it's possible
that it's happened because of abundant spread into ancient Russian
market of loudstandarding silver coins of Europian countries -
dinarius - and also of Bizantine gold, silver and copper coins.
Besides it in circulation still staying a significant quantity
of east coins (dirhams). From the middle of XI century in Kievan
Rus begin issuing cast silver coin - grivna
- which become general coin of Rus, and also it dropped
parts - rubles. At the first part of XI century Chersonessos
stopped it minting. Its last coins issued with initials of Bizantine
Emperor Roman IV.
XIII - beginning of XIII century. The general coin of Kievan
Rus staing silver ingots - grivna. Except Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod
and Litva also issuing them. In the circulation present European
denarius, Bizantine silver and copper coins and also coins of
Muslim countries of East. Because of constant wars with polovets,
money circulation begining gradually go out and start changing
into barter. After invasion of Mongol-Tatar in 1240 money circulation
of the territoria of Kievan Rus - Ukraine was died.
The Mongolian-Tatar and The
Middle XIII - XVIII century
Middle XIII - XIV century. Under hits of regiment of khan
Batu in the middle XIII c. neighboring Kievan Rus was crashed.
Litva grabbed Kievan Region, Podolye and other Central and North
Ukrainian lands, and also big part of Volyn. Poland owned of Galich
land and part of Western Volyn. Bukovina become own of Moldavian
Hungary owned Zakarpatye wich it owned at XI century already.
According to the money circulation general part of conterporary
Ukraine was devided into three fields: Mongolian-Tatar, Lithuanian
and Poland. Mongol silver dirhams
and copper coins were in circulation in the southern lands of
the Ukraine which were included into staff of Golden Horde. These
coins came from regions of Volga or were mined in the mints of
coin was used in the northern and central regions of the
Ukraine, which were included into staff of Lithuanian Princedom.
coin circulated in the contemporary western Ukraine which
got under the control of Polish Kingdom. Its own minting of coins
in these times was implemented by the city of Lvov and also Kiev
during the time when prince Vladimir Olgerdovich was governing here and Volyn Pricipality during the period of prince Feodor Liubartovich.
XV - XVI c.c. Crimean
Khanat arises in the ruins of Golden Horde in the south
of the Ukraine which started its own coinage on behalf of dynasty
of khans Gireys. Autonomous Genoese-Tatar town Kaffa
(now is Feodosiya) was formed in the Crimea in the middle of the
XV c. This town also issued its own silver and copper coins. The
town of Apocastro
(now is Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy near Odessa) which got under the
control of Moldavian Princedom issued copper coins and over-minted
silver dirhams of Golden Horda. Moldavian
coins were wide spread on the south-west lands of the
Ukraine. In the middle of the XV c. Turkey occupied Constantinople
and Byzantine Empire was collapsed. After that Turkish
coins started spreading on Ukrainian territory.
XVII-the end of XVIII c.c. The coins of Poland and also
her vassals and other European states such as Silesia, Riga, Danzig,
Czech, Hungary, Sweden were very wide spread. On the begining
of the second half of the XVII c. a great amount of silver kopecks
State and also "efimki" - European tallers which
were over-minted in Moscow started spreading on the left shore
of Ukraine. The coins of Crimean Khanat and Osttoman Empire still
circulated on the south of Ukraine almost till the end of XVII
c. At that time Russia almost liberated the South of Ukraine from
Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanat stopped its existance.
the end of XVIII - 1991
The end of XVII-XIX c.c. The coins of Russian
Empire circulated practically in all the territory of
Ukraine by the end of XVIII c. Larger part of Poland was annexed
to Russian territory. A little amount of coins of Polland and
also Western Prussia, Livonia, Moldova - Valahia, Finland, Georgia
and other states were included temporary or constantly in staff
were circulated there. The coins of these states started spreading
in the Russian empire in a little amount. In the main Austrian
coins were circulated in the western lands of Ukraine wich were
included in staff of Dual Empire.
XX c.c. Over the years of the first world war temporary
money and metallic bons were put into circulation for occupied
territory. This money like coins of Germany, Russia and Austrian
empires circulated in the territory of Ukraine at that time. In
1918 - 1920 Ukraine became independent and managed to make a few
issues of its own paper money, but didn't manage to mint coins.
During the postrevolution
time some Ukrainian establishments issued money mixes - metal
bonns which had limited use.
The Period of Independence
August of 1991. Ukraine became the new independent European country
with the population more than 50 million people. As its historical
predecessor Kievan Rus which in X-XI centuries declared its sovereignty
to the all civilized world by its own coins since 1995 Ukraine
has minted its own coins. Its first
commemorative coins started functioning on the 7 of May
in 1995. They were dedicated to the 50 Anniversary of the Victory
in the Great Patriotic War. As the first gold and silver coins
which minted in the period of Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav
the Wise the Ukrainian coins are stamped with the ancient national
emblem - Trizub of Kievan Rus. In 1996 there was realized money
reform and the new national currency started to function. It was
traditionally. The next 1997 was marked by functioning of first
Ukrainian golden coins. Kievan coin yard was opened in the same
year. It mints the commemorative coins and coins for regular circulation
by modern technologies.